Safety of Electrical Installations – A Guide for Residential Property Owners
Faults in the electrical wiring systems of properties account for the majority of fires and in some cases fatal electric shock accidents. Every year approximately 25 people are killed by electricity at work. In addition to these fatalities, 1000 major injury accidents are also reported.
Around 25% of all electrical injury accidents are caused by portable electrical equipment (PPE). Faulty electrical leads cause around 2000 fires each year.
Installation, Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
It is important to remember that installation, inspection, testing and maintenance of new or altered electrical systems should only be carried out by a competent qualified electrical tradesmen or contractor.
The electrical installation must be installed in accordance with the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Wiring Regulations 17th edition now known as BS 7671:2008 incorporating amendment 3:2015, where appropriate. The IET Wiring Regulations establish the accepted safety parameters for designers, installers and testers of electrical installations.
The IET Wiring Regulations have the status of a Code of Practice and whilst being non-statutory, may be used in a court of law as evidence of the standard to be achieved. It is recommended that electrical installations are tested at least once in every 5 year period or after any additions are made to the system. Simple, visual inspections should take place more frequently.
Electrical work module
The Electrical and Electronics module should be done after the General module. If it is some time since you have done the General module you should read the Review module. The test for this module includes some questions based on the Review module.
Within this industry, you may be involved in a range of work activities such as using measuring instruments, soldering, using hand, power and specialist tools and constructing circuits. Only licensed electrical workers can legally perform electrical work.
This includes new electrical installations and alterations, and repairs to existing installations. An unqualified person must not be employed or allowed to undertake electrical work. Apprentices and trainees must be supervised by a qualified electrical worker at all times.
Your employer must make sure you are properly trained and supervised, that you are instructed in safe work procedures, and that all equipment is in good working order. It is important that you work in a safe manner, not only for your own safety but also for the safety of others.
Lock out, isolation and tagging
Lock out, isolation and tagging procedures in a work place are designed to protect people and property from risks arising from machinery or equipment which has been taken ‘out of service’ for repair, maintenance or inspection. The significant hazard is often electricity in such cases.
MUST-KNOW TIPS FOR DIY ELECTRICAL WIRING AND SWITCHING
People take on DIY projects in their own homes for a number of reasons. Whether they want to save money, feel more independent or enjoy fixing things themselves, any DIY project requires some basic know-how to be done properly. Installing or replacing electrical switches and wiring is no exception. These DIY Electrical Wiring tips can help make the process of installing electrical wires and switches a breeze, especially for a DIYer.
Have the right tools handy
Like any other DIY job, you want to make sure you have the right tools to do the job. They can include a multimeter, a non-contact voltage detector (tests the heat of wire without touching it) and a combination sheath and wire stripper. Being equipped with the right tools will help you be prepared for anything throughout the electrical switch wiring process.
Know your wires
When connecting electrical wiring to an outlet, it’s important to not confuse your wires or put them in the wrong terminal. The white wire is the neutral wire and goes into the neutral terminal, which is marked by silver/light-colored screws. The black wire, on the other hand, is the hot wire and goes into the hot terminal, the one opposite the neutral terminal. If there’s a ground wire, it will be a copper wire held in place by a screw on the same side as the neutral terminal.
It’s always better to have too much wire than not enough. There are wire extensions available if you end up cutting them short, but the wiring will work better if it is intact.
Hide gaps in drywall with oversized plates
When you’re installing electrical switches, it’s pretty easy to cut a hole in the drywall that is too big. Thankfully, there are oversized plates available at hardware stores that you can use to cover your switches.
Electrical Inspection and Testing: In-depth
All electrical installations or equipment will deteriorate with age and use. A regime of simple user checks and periodic inspection and testing in compliance with BS 7671 should identify defects before they pose a serious hazard and will ensure that equipment remains safe to use.
In residential care settings, managers will be responsible for arranging suitable inspection and testing for all electrical installations and equipment used at work. In domiciliary care, periodic inspection and testing will apply to any offices run by the organisation. It will also apply to portable equipment carried by care staff on home visits. Managers will not be responsible for arranging inspection and testing in service user’s homes.
The main legislation relating to electrical inspection and testing activities is the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (EAW) which apply to all work activities involving electrical equipment. They require that electrical systems and equipment must be maintained, so far as reasonably practicable, to prevent danger. All work on or near to electrical systems must be carried out in a safe manner and should be subject to appropriate risk assessment.
Under the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER), employers are responsible for ensuring that work equipment is suitable for its intended purpose, is maintained in an efficient state and is inspected as necessary in order to ensure that any deterioration can be detected and remedied in good time.
Where a risk assessment carried out under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 identifies a significant risk to the operator or other workers from the installation or use of the work equipment, a suitable inspection should be carried out. This inspection should include, where appropriate, visual checks, functional checks and testing.
The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 apply to the inspection and testing of all items of electrical equipment including fixed or portable equipment.
The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) cover any equipment that is “hard wired” (not connected by a plug and socket), and includes fixed installations, such as:
plant and equipment, including air conditioning, heating and ventilation systems, process equipment, lifts (goods and passenger) and electrically-driven lifting equipment (eg hoists)
controls systems, including switches, selectors, indicators and alarms.
The term “portable” in the context of electrical equipment is used to mean portable, movable or transportable. Typical items of portable and transportable appliances include:
handheld mains-powered tools used in buildings or grounds maintenance, including drills, pressure washers, etc
office equipment, including computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, photocopiers, shredding machines and vending machines
kitchen appliances (white goods), including fridges, freezers, microwaves, ovens and kettles.
What Things You Should Consider Before Installing Electrical Appliances?
Electrical installation is a composite structure of electrical apparatus which is installed to give continuous supply of electricity. You cannot imagine your life without electricity. It is highly recommended to use safe instruments that offer longevity. If you are thinking to build a new home, then you will need to establish stable power supply in homes and offices. You need to properly understand the wiring system which is required for your newly build home. You need to make a planned budget to avoid any extra expenses.
There are several government and private organizations which regulate this entire procedure of power installation. Their primary concern is to provide safety to avoid any mishaps and the appliances that they use have long durability. You have to appoint an efficient worker for proper installation
As you have to be very careful about safety norms, so you should take some measures during the electrical installation procedure. You have to get international standard materials so that disaster can be avoided. Most importantly you should chalk out a plan with electrical engineer who can guide you about feasible installation. A full-proof plan must be executed by a professional electrician. You must try to use more advanced materials and testing instrument. An electrician must provide adequate information on how the customer can take care of all electronic appliances. The installation requires proper maintenance to reduce the risk of emergencies.
Components used for electrical installation
Cable: It is one of the most important elements of electrical installation. The conductor is made of copper. But the flexible cable consists of aluminium. Electrician can make different sizes of conductors as per their need. They prefer 3 phase wiring for installation.
Switches: You must choose highly recommended switches and switchboards.
Switchgear: The switchgear is used for isolating and protecting electrical instruments. The circuit breakers are put inside the switchgear. When any disruptions appear, electricians de-energize this to find out the faults.
MCB: The MCB panel is used because if there is any accidental overloading, can provide protection without any hindrance. The tripping in the MCB panel denotes the intensity of overload. MCB can provide protection during short-circuits.
Alternative Current Distribution Board: This panel works as the main supply of electricity system. It can give protection during overload situation.
Junction Box: Electricity supply companies have made installation of junction box mandatory. It helps to prevent tampering in domestic households and offices.
Lightening Arrester: It consists of ground terminal and high-voltage terminal and it can protect the appliances from any damage during lightening or flashing.
Earthing: During the electrical installation, it is mandatory to install this earthing system. It is done to establish a connection with the ground. You can use this to save electrical appliances from lightening effect. Even it can prevent voltage faults and you can avoid the risk of hazardous incidents.
Emergency grid: Emergency electrical system can act an independent source of electricity supply. When the normal power grid malfunctions, this source can be used as an alternative to primary electric supply.
Motor starter: This device is used to reduce the intensity of current and then later to increase the supply of current and this also work as an overload shield.
Transformer: An electrical transformer is used to transfer high voltage current from one circuit to another circuit and it can maintain the frequency of power supply.